A False Attack: Why and How the USA went to War against Iraq?

The Iraq war has a root back to the first Gulf War. Back then, Iraq had attacked next-door country Kuwait in 1990. But, a US-led coalition stopped Saddam Hussein’s armed force out of the nation in 1991. After that, the U.N. resolution, which finished the war, denied Iraq from having or delivering natural, chemical or atomic weapons. Also, Saddam declined to give U.N. weapons investigators free access as well. Following 12 years, the world leaders agonized over the likelihood that Saddam was creating, or had produced these weapons of mass destructions (WMDs).

After 9/11, President George W. Bush along with the members from his close circle has focused intensely on Saddam. Saddam himself, on the other hand, denied that he had WMDs and conveyed a feeling that he never possessed WMDs. (shortly before his execution, he told an F.B.I. questioner that he had done this to keep Iran from considering him to be weak and defenseless.

President Bush demanded that Saddam represented a danger to the security of the U.S. and the Middle East. In a broadcast message in 2003, the president gave Saddam a final proposal – leave Iraq or the U.S. military will assault Iraq and evacuate you. He also said that the US had has solid evidence that Saddam had WMDs, and that Iraq had supported, prepared and harbored al-Qaeda terrorists. To anticipate a future terrorist assault through chemical, biological or atomic weapons, the president said, they have every right to defend the attack by eliminating the terrorist threat.

The American armed forces invaded Iraq in 2003 (March 20th) and after one and half month, President Bush declared victory on May 1. In the wake of beating Saddam’s government, U.S. investigators discovered no sign of WMDs. They reasoned that Iraq had stopped adding to these weapons in 1991. No confirmation for an Iraq/al-Qaeda association ever surfaced, either; Saddam himself, in the F.B.I. meetings specified above, criticized Osama bin-Laden and disagree having any dealings with al-Qaeda.

Furthermore, the Bush administration had offered several justifications for the intrusion including Saddam’s history of human rights violation. Also, they provided details of his backing for terrorist groups (he offered rewards to the families of Palestinian suicide bombers).Critics have believed that Bush and his allies wanted to eliminate Saddam from power and depended on flawed evidence to legalized the invasion.

Arguments against the invasion

The US attack on Iraq was a controversial and questionable decision in recent American history. The critics have made the following arguments over the war:

  • To attack Iraq without the U.N’s. approval as we think Saddam may have WMDs, disregards international law.

 

  • Overthrowing Saddam may bring chaos in Iraq, which could destabilize an officially dangerous part in middle-east.

 

  • Invading Iraq without the backing of the international community will detach the U.S. also; make enemies for us, particularly in Islamic nations.
  • If we need to keep America safe from the individuals who might hurt us, then we should put our assets into eliminating Al-Qaeda. Iraq represents no prompt danger to us.

How many US Soldiers have died?

According to the U.S. Bureau of Defense setback site (May 29, 2012) 4,425 US soldiers have died (including both murdered in action and non-hostile) and 32,223 injured in activities (WIA) as a consequence of Operation Iraq Freedom.

American Military Casualties in Iraq
Date Total In Combat
American Deaths
Since war began (3/19/03): 4493 3528
Since “Mission Accomplished” (5/1/03) 4347 3424
Since Handover (6/29/04): 3627 2899
Since Obama Inauguration (1/20/09): 256 128
Since Operation New Dawn: 66 39
American Wounded Official Estimated
Total Wounded: 32021 Over 100000

Results of the invasion, in brief

By removing the atrocious regime of Saddam Hussein, the U.S. led coalition won the appreciation of numerous Iraqis. Not long after he was gone, nonetheless, Saddam supporters and religious radicals started to strike against American fighters. Chaos and fighting additionally broke out between Sunnis and Shiites, taking a huge number of lives. Regardless of proceeding with strains between distinctive groups, and progressing violence, Iraq now is by all accounts headed straight toward building up a functioning democratic government. But we don’t know what will happen once US forces leave the country!

How do the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan affect the Surviving Soldiers?

Since Vietnam war, the Afghanistan and Iraq wars are the longest ever battle operations. A lot of stressors confront these Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) troops. OEF/OIF service members are at danger for death or severe injury. They may see others hurt or executed. In fact, they might have needed to slaughter or wound others. As a result, they are subjected to dangers. These and different components have the potentials to expand the possibilities of having PTSD or other psychological problems.

Several members of service have been far away from home for long stretches of time and these issues can bring problems at home or work. Also, these issues can add to the anxiety as well. Besides, these problems are severe for National Guard and Reserve troops who had not anticipated that they would be away for so long. Half of the individuals who have served in the present wars have been Guard and Reservists.

There is another persisting stress problem that occurred in Iraq and Afghanistan is military sexual trauma (MST). This is rape or recurring, devastating inappropriate sexual behavior that happens in the military. It can happen to men and ladies. MST can also happen during peacetime, training period, or war.

One early study looked at the mental health of service members in Afghanistan and Iraq. The study asked Soldiers and Marines about war-zone experiences and about their symptoms of distress. Soldiers and Marines in Iraq reported more combat stressors than Soldiers in Afghanistan. This table describes the kinds of stressors faced in each combat theatre in 2003.

A research has been conducted on the emotional well-being of service members in Afghanistan and Iraq. It revealed some information about war-zone experiences and the side effects of distress. More soldiers, officers and marines in Iraq war reported about stress than in Afghanistan war. The below table portrays the kinds of stressors confronted in every battle in 2003 –

Combat Stressors Seeing dead bodies Being shot at Being attacked/ ambushed Receiving rocket or mortar fire Know someone killed/ seriously injured
Iraq Army 95% 93% 89% 86% 86%
Iraq Marines 94% 97% 95% 92% 87%
Afghanistan Army 39% 66% 58% 84% 43%

Source: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/

The soldiers and marines served in Iraq war suffered from more combat stressors and mental health problems than those who served in Afghanistan. The rate of having PSTD is higher for the soldiers in Iraq than Afghanistan. A later research confirmed these findings with evidence.

What causes the risk of PTSD in OEF/OIF service members?

Some research studies have revealed that specific factors make it more likely that OEF/OIF service members will develop PTSD. These factors include:

  • Long deployment time
  • Severe combat exposure, such as Deployment to “forward” areas close to the enemy and watching others wounded or killed
  • Severe physical injury and Traumatic brain injury
  • Lower rank and Lower level of schooling
  • Low morale and poor social support within the unit
  • Not being married and having Family problems
  • Member of the National Guard or Reserves
  • Prior trauma exposure
  • Hispanic ethnic group

What are the probable outcomes?

A research on OEF/OIF Veterans recommends that 10% to 18% of OEF/OIF troops are vulnerable to have PTSD after the war. Also, the PTSD, OEF/OIF service members are at a greater level of danger for other mental problems. In spite of the fact that studies differ generally as far as systems utilized, approximations of depression in returning troops vary from 3% to 25%. An excessive level of drinking and use of tobacco among OEF/OIF Veterans might be hazardous. They additionally report worries over differences with others.

Apart from this research, several other research studies have revealed how the reaction to war stressors changes after some time. The PTSD signs will probably appear in returning OEF/OIF service members after a while. Utilizing a brief PTSD screen, they were evaluated at their arrival and an again six months later. They will probably have a positive screen and they have demonstrated more PTSD side effects – at a later time. Now, a lot of service members who were screened positive with PSTD in the initial showed that the side effects will be reduced after six months. As a whole, it must be noted that almost all the returning members evaluated negatively for PSTD at both times.

Summary: The War against Iraq

From 1979 to 2003, Saddam Hussein ruled an atrocious dictatorship of Iraq. In 1990, he attacked and possessed the country of Kuwait for six months until being removed by a global coalition. For a while, he had demonstrated differing degrees of scorn for the international terms consented to toward the end of the war, to be specific a “no-fly zone” over a significant part of the nation, especially, the international examinations of probable artillery destinations. In 2003, an American-drove coalition attacked Iraq and ousted the Saddam Hussein’s long-standing government.

  1. Creating the Coalition

US President Bush had provided various reasons for attacking Iraq. These rationales included infringement of U.N. Security Council resolutions, the assembling of weapons of mass annihilation (WMD), and monstrosities conferred by Hussein against his kin. All of these violations represented a strong risk to the U.S. what’s more, the world. The U.S. guaranteed to have proof that demonstrated the presence of the WMD. They asked the U.N. Security Council to approve an invasion but the council did not. Rather, the U.S. along with the United Kingdom enrolled 29 different nations in a “coalition of the willing” to support and complete the invasion started in March 2003.

  1. Post-Invasion Troubles

Despite the fact that the first part of the war went as anticipated (the Iraqi government collapsed in a few days), the occupation and the restructuring demonstrated a very troublesome and difficult task. The UN held elections that led to the birth of new constitution and government. Be that as it may, brutal efforts by rebels had driven the nation to civil war. It had destabilized the new government and made Iraq a hotbed for terrorist enrollment. And significantly, these violence efforts raised the expense of the war. No stockpiles of WMD were found in Iraq, which harmed the trustworthiness of the U.S. As a result, the reputations of the American leaders were damaged and undermined the method of reasoning for the war.

  1. Divisions inside Iraq

Within Iraq, the different groups and loyalties were difficult to understand. Religious flaw lines between Sunni and Shiite Muslims were investigated. In spite of the fact that religion is an influential force in the Iraq friction, secular influences, including Saddam Hussein’s Ba’ath Party, was considered to better comprehend Iraq.

  1. Expense of the Iraq War

In Iraq War, over 4,000 American troops have been executed and more than 30,000 injured. Almost 300 troops from other associated forces have been slaughtered. According to sources, over 50,000 Iraqi agitators have been murdered in the war and Iraqi regular citizens dead range is from 50,000 to 600,000. The United States has spent over $700 billion on the war and may eventually spend a trillion or more dollars.

 

  1. Foreign Policy Implications

Since 2002, the Iraq war and its aftermath have been at the focal point of U.S. foreign policy. The war and encompassing issues (like Iran) possess the consideration of about each leader at the White House, State Department, and Pentagon. Furthermore, the war has created an anti-American sentiment around the globe. Ultimately, it has made global policy making procedure more troublesome

  1. Future movements for the Iraq War

President Bush and his group appeared to be resolved to proceed with the control of Iraq. They had wanted to convey enough solidness to the country that Iraqi security powers can keep up control and permit the new government to pick up strength and legitimacy. However, other people believe this is an unthinkable task. What’s more, the perceived future is conceivable however can’t develop until after American soldiers are taken off from Iraq. Dealing with the American departure is discussed in a report from the bipartisan “Iraq Study Group” and in the plans of a few presidential campaigns.

Radio advertising for immediate sales response

People might get a view that radios have become outdated in today’s world with the advancement of technology. But, the scenario is quite different. Radios were in use in the olden days and it is in use till now. Radios cannot be taken out of the competition. One section of people use radio even till today. The main use of radio is that it can be carried all around. People can take it in bicycle and also while traveling. As such, when advertising companies launch a product and spread the news, then the people using radio would come to know of it at first. Companies can get the immediate response through radios.

Radios are very economical and anyone can purchase it. Radios are still in use in the rural areas.  People in the rural areas are not much educated, but radio helps to know about outdoor advertising in Toronto and of products. Companies have to capture the attention of both rural and urban areas. In pre-television days, radio was the only means to remain connected with the rest of the world. Dramas, music, etc. were heard in radios and people were excited about radios. Radio advertising is still effective means even today. Radio can reach a large section of people and everyone can give their opinions on it. The money charged for advertising in radios is on the basis of time. People mostly listen to the radio during mornings and at times when they return from office. The companies can increase the repetition of their advertisements during these hours and would come to know of their products immediately.

Mainly for radio advertisements, there are package rates for showing the advertisements. The business houses should choose their respective package and give the advertisements on the radios. People can not only hear sounds in radios, but it feels like the entire scenario is being played right near their eyes. Advertisements have the power to make consumers want the products. The advertisements are done in such a way that people get attracted to it. In radio advertising, there is circulation of the advertisements. People discuss with each other about the products and as such they plan to buy them. In advertisements, the discussion is very important as by discussing, people can get a chance to share their views with each other.

The frequency of radio advertisements is very high. There are some which broadcasts the advertisements daily. The ones investing should know in what to invest. If they make a wrong investment, chances might be that they may lose their money. Advertising should be done only on those broadcasts which are featured every day. Though old method, but radio advertising is still in use. People won’t stop using something that they have been using for a long time till now.

Messages in radios will get passed on in every period of time and in this way they can reach a larger target. The timings of advertisements in radios is not much and companies should design their advertisements in such a way that it gets over during the stipulated time. Big business houses can deal with radio broadcast to showcase their advertisements.

Iraq War: Everything You Need to Know about!

The Iraq war started on March 19, 2003. Currently, it is the longest military clash of United States other than the Vietnam War. The Iraq war has taken somewhere in the range of 90,000 Iraqi lives. Besides, around 4,298 coalition troops has been died, among them, there are about 4,000 Americans. Also, the American citizens or taxpayers have paid nearly $700 billion and this war may cost up to $2 trillion if the war continues for another five years.

Significant Events of the war

  • On March 2003, about 300,000 American and British troops had attacked Iraq. Almost all the members from the U.N. have opposed the war. On May 1, the then President of US Bush declared victory over Iraq. But, there was violence against American soldiers and Iraqis who supported the war. Because of vulnerable security, robbers figure out how to take invaluable archeological relics from the National Museum in Baghdad. And a huge amount of explosives was stolen from an Iraqi weapons facility. The Iraqi Army had broken down and members from Saddam’s ruling Baath party were restricted from taking part in the government activities. In December, Saddam was found in a little subversive hideout.

 

  • In 2004, an interim constitution was approved. There were photos revealed abusing Iraqi detainees by American fighters in the Abu Ghraib jail. A furious adversary of American inclusion in Iraq, Shiite minister Moktada al-Sadr, drove an uprising against U.S. troops. As a result, the terrorist attacks occurred in every day.

 

  • In 2005, the first election in Iraq took place in over 50 years. The people of Iraq picked a National Assembly. In that election, all most all Sunnis decline to vote, and Shiites win a greater part of the vote. The “Bringing down Street Memo” surfaces – providing details regarding a 2002 meeting, the head of British Intelligence expresses that President Bush needed to uproot Saddam, and that the Bush administration influenced the evidence to start an invasion. Saddam Hussein goes on trial for wrongdoings against humankind.

 

  • In 2006, Nouri al-Maliki was elected as Prime Minister of Iraq. Abu Musab al Zarqawi, a pioneer of “Al Qaeda in Iraq,” was executed by American troops. Saddam Hussein is executed as well.

 

  • In 2007, on the insistence of General David Petraeus, who was the commander of U.S. forces in Iraq, US President Bush had provided an additional 30,000 troops to Iraq. “The surge” means to smother the aggression and help the rival groups to achieve a political settlement. The ongoing brutality of “al-Qaeda in Iraq” triggered a backfire, which is known as the Sunni Awakening. Almost 80,000 previous Sunni agitators betray Al-Qaeda and backed the new government.

 

  • 2008 The Iraqi government calls for the removal of U.S. troops by 2011.

 

  • In February 2009, newly elected U.S. President Barack Obama declared that American battle troops will leave Iraq by August 2010. However, around 50,000 soldiers will stay for advising and training the Iraqi security forces and thus, they will help with intelligence-gathering.

 

  • In August 2010, US President Obama declared that the American battle mission in Iraq has been finished.

Numbers involved with Iraq War

  • American soldiers murdered in Iraq: 4,487
  • American soldiers injured in Iraq: 32,226
  • Dollars spent (or affirmed to be spent) on the war, through 9/10: about $900 billion
  • Iraqi police and soldiers murdered: 9,381
  • Iraqi civilians murdered: assessments range from 50,000 to 600,000
  • Iraqi guerrillas slaughtered: around 55,000
  • Iraqi refugees who have left their home: more than 2.1 million (about 7% of the aggregate population)
  • Iraqi refugees inside Iraq: more than 2.2 million starting 2007

How has the Iraq War changed the course of the lives of Iraq People?

As indicated by the International Committee of the Red Cross (in 2007), “Civilians endured the worst part of the persistent brutality and the poor security conditions disrupt the lives and jobs of millions. Consistently, many individuals were murdered and numerous were injured. Shootings, bombings, snatchings, murders, military operations and different types of savagery are compelling a large number of individuals to escape their homes and look for security somewhere else in Iraq or in neighboring nations.” As of 2007, 25% of Iraqi children experienced endless chronic malnutrition. 40% of professionals had escaped from the nation and a lot of homes had electricity for just a couple of hours a day (starting 2007). And just 1/3 of homes had sewer system facilities.